Language, Intelligence, and Thought
In this text, first published in 1993, Barrow decisively rejects the traditional assumption that intelligence has no educational significance and contends instead that intelligence is developed by the enlargement of understanding. Arguing that much educational research is driven by a concept of intelligence that has no obvious educational relevance, Dr Barrow suggests that this is partly due to a widespread lack of understanding about the nature and point of philosophical analysis, and partly due to a failure to face up to the value judgements that are necessarily involved in analysing a concept such as intelligence. If intelligence is to be of educational significance, it must be understood in terms that allow it to be educable. Written by a philosopher of education, this study offers a reasoned and extended argument in favour of an original view of philosophical analysis. It focuses on the issue of intelligence from a philosophical perspective. It should be of interest to students of education, philosophy and the philosophy of education alike.
commodities (from grain, through metals, to fuels). The sharp reduction in demand for such goods, combined with insufficient liquidity on these markets, led to a major fall in the price of fuel (the barrel price of oil fell from $147 in July to $45 at the beginning of December), metals, and agricultural produce. Deflationary trends during the second half of the year, and particularly from October to early December, opened up room for the Fed, the European Central Bank, and the Bank of England to
attempt to define the fundamental principles of Christianity, i.e. the fundamentals, deviation from which was unacceptable in the view of this Protestant movement. As it was related to religion or religious values, the term was later expanded to religious fundamentalism and has, over the past three decades, been used to describe the religious worldview based on the belief that society should be organized solely and exclusively on the basis of strongly codified religious norms of behaviour. Today,
crunch in almost all the countries of the region and the decline in business investment (including foreign investment), an active fiscal policy has an important role to play in changing expectations and any antirecessionary course of action. Any government bonds issued by Western Balkan countries to finance infrastructural projects would likely require high interest rates. Given that high interest rates on government bonds, when fiscal revenues from tax collection are down, increase the risks of
was introduced (January 1999), more than half of the then member states of the Euro-zone had a total debt much higher than the ‘allowed’ 60 per cent of GDP. The two countries with the highest level of public debt in 1998/1999 were Belgium (124 per cent of GDP) and Italy (122 per cent of GDP). Greece was admitted to the Euro-zone in 2001, having met one of the two fiscal criteria. Specifically, Greece had cut the budget deficit to below 3 per cent of GDP, while its public debt at that time was at
148, 149; as small open economy 166–7; social security contributions 150–1, 161; social security spending 87; state-owned capital 174–6; taxation 26, 27, 146, 150–1, 160–1, 164 (corporate income tax 157, 160, 161, 162; indirect 26, 27, 146, 150, 154, 163; personal income tax 70, 150, 151, 160; VAT 30, 68, 163, 173); tourism industry 136, 138, 140, 146–7, 148, 176, 177; trade 138, 140, 143, 148, 158, 162, 177; trade balance 68, 151, 152, 171; trade deficit 68, 151, 157, 158–9, 170–1; trade with EU